# Working with Numbers in Python

In this article, we’ll explore the basics of working with numbers in Python, how they work, and why they’re important.

Updated April 5, 2023

If you’re just starting to learn Python programming, you’ll soon discover that numbers are a fundamental data type that you’ll be working with a lot. Numbers can be used to represent everything from quantities to measurements to calculations, and understanding how to work with them is essential to writing effective Python code. In this article, we’ll explore the basics of working with numbers in Python, how they work, and why they’re important.

## What are Numbers in Python?

In Python, numbers are a data type used to represent numeric values. There are three types of numbers in Python: integers, floats, and complex numbers. Integers are whole numbers without a decimal point, while floats are numbers with a decimal point. Complex numbers are numbers with both real and imaginary parts. Here are a few examples:

```
>>> x = 10
>>> y = 3.14
>>> z = 2 + 3j
>>> print(x, y, z)
10 3.14 (2+3j)
```

In this example, we create three variables: x, y, and z. We assign x the integer value 10, y the float value 3.14, and z the complex value 2 + 3j. We then use the print() function to display their values in the console.

## Arithmetic Operators in Python

Python supports several arithmetic operators that can be used to perform calculations on numeric values. These operators include + (addition), - (subtraction), * (multiplication), / (division), % (modulus), ** (exponentiation), and // (floor division).

Here’s an example that demonstrates the use of arithmetic operators in Python:

```
>>> x = 10
>>> y = 3
>>> print(x + y) # addition
13
>>> print(x - y) # subtraction
7
>>> print(x * y) # multiplication
30
>>> print(x / y) # division
3.3333333333333335
>>> print(x % y) # modulus
1
>>> print(x ** y) # exponentiation
1000
>>> print(x // y) # floor division
3
```

In this example, we use the arithmetic operators to perform various calculations on the values of x and y. We also use the print() function to display the results of each calculation in the console.

## Type Conversion in Python

In Python, you can convert one type of number to another using type conversion. This is useful when you need to perform calculations with different types of numbers. Here’s an example:

```
>>> x = 10
>>> y = 3.14
>>> z = complex(x, y)
>>> print(z)
(10+3.14j)
>>> print(float(x))
10.0
>>> print(int(y))
3
```

In this example, we convert the integer value of x to a complex number using the complex() function. We also convert the float value of y to an integer using the int() function.

## Using Numbers in Python

Numbers are used extensively in Python programming to perform calculations, make measurements, and represent quantities. For example, you might use numbers to calculate the area of a rectangle, convert temperatures between Celsius and Fahrenheit, or count the number of items in a list.

Here’s an example that demonstrates the use of numbers to perform a calculation:

```
length = 10
width = 5
area = length * width
print("The area of the rectangle is", area)
```

In this example, we use the length and width variables to calculate the area of a rectangle. We then use the print() function to display the result in the console.

Another common use of numbers in Python is to perform mathematical operations on them. For example, you might use numbers to calculate the distance between two points, the speed of an object, or the volume of a container.

Here’s an example that demonstrates the use of numbers to perform a calculation:

```
distance = 10
time = 2
speed = distance / time
print("The speed of the object is", speed)
```

In this example, we use the distance and time variables to calculate the speed of an object. We then use the print() function to display the result in the console.

## Conclusion

In this article, we’ve explored the basics of working with numbers in Python, including arithmetic operators, type conversion, and how to use numbers in Python code. Hopefully, this article has given you a good understanding of how to work with numbers in Python and how to use them effectively in your own programs. Remember, practice makes perfect, so keep experimenting with numbers and exploring the many ways they can be used in Python programming. Happy coding!